Shaoping Bai
Title Professor, Ph.D.
  Dept. Materials and Production &
Centre for Robotics Research
Aalborg University, Denmark

Founder of BioX ApS, Denmark

Address Pon. 103, Rm 2.105
Phone +45 9940 9291(o); +45 2136 9697 (m)

PhD scholarship in assistive robotics immidiately availableSee full size image

We are looking for a candidate to work on a new project for the development of exoskeletons that will assist elderly persons in enhancing their mobility and manipulability. The candidate will get involved in design and development of upper arm exoskeletons, with focus on the user-motion intention detection and robot control.

 The candidate should have a MSc degree in control engineering, mechatronics or robotics with relevant background for robotic or assistive system development. Strong competencies in dynamics and robotics, and skills of simulation in MATLAB and programming in C/C++ are essential. Experience in one or more of the following areas will be considered an asset:

- Design and control of exoskeleton systems

- motion intention detection and control

- human/robot interaction

The scholarship is immediately available. The successful candidate will be offered a three-year scholarship of phd study at AAU. Applications, including cv and transcripts, should be sent to prof. Shaoping Bai of Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, AAU, at


Research Interests
  • Robotics: humanoid, mobile robots, surgical robots, calibration
  • Robot design: robotic arms, robotic wrists, parallel manipulators
  • Linkage synthesis/analysis, computer-aided design
  • Modelling, simulation and reliability analysis of wind turbine transmissions

Research projects

  • Robotics and Wearable Exoskeleton Technology

VIEXO (2022-2025)

The project is funded by Independant Research Fund Denmark, with an aim to develop a new generation of industrial exoskeletons. The reserach focus in on the variable impedance modeling, perceiption, and control.

Collaborators: National University of Singapore, Exoskeletter ApS


ALEXO (2019-2022)

A three year project to empower people with walking difficulties with an advanced intelligent lower-body exoskeleton.  The objective is to develop and test an effective, safe and affordable leg exoskeleton to assist people who have walking problems.

Collaborator: Aalborg University Hosipital

Funded by Nyegaardsfond



EXO-AIDER, aka E-joint, is a Grand Solutions project funded by Innovation Fund Denmark, running from 2017 to 2021.














AXO-SUIT: exoskeletons suitable for elderly persons

 A three year project stated on October 1st 2014 and is funded under the EU Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) Joint Programme, Call 6

The project was completed with great success. EU AAL selected AXO-SUIT at the project of the month in 2020.

Funding bodies


An arm exoskeleton produced by 3D printing

Exoskeleton for upper extremity assistance

A project within the SPIR platform project Patient@home, the largest research project in welfare technology in Denmark funded by

Danish Agency for Science Technology and Innovation

Aalborg Universitet



A novel 3-dof robot for Schoenflies motion generation

The robot is able to generate Schoenfilies motion, i.e. a special group of motion containing three translations and one rotation, similar to the motion of a waiter carrying glasses. The new type of robots is well suited for PnP operations in food and pharmaceutical industries.

The project is founded by: RoboCluster and AAU

First version has been developed by a group of MP6 students in the Spring 2013, while the electronics and motion controller were built by a group of MP5 students.

video (1) animation of the PnP motion (click here)

Video (2) robot assembly (click here)

Video (3) pick-and-place  demo, 1st prototype (click here)

Video (4) demo by 2nd prototype (click here)


the AALARM (AAU Lightweight Arm)
click to view a large pics
A light-weight robotic arm for assistive applications.

Research student: Lelai Zhou (PhD)


The project is funded by

Aalborg Universitetobel

video (1): (the first prototype built by L. Zhou)

(2) (robot for drink serving, developed by MP6 students in 2012 Spring)

(3) (robot for drink serving ver 2.developed by MP3 students 2012 Automn)

The 3-PPR manipulator is driven with three high-precision self-sensing SMAC actuators.
Click here for a video clip
Multi-objective optimization of spherical parallel manipulators

PhD student: Guanglei Wu

Collaborator: Dr. Stephane Caro, IRCCyN, France

  • Dynamics and design
A Robust Method of Dimensional Synthesis of Linkages and it Industrial Applications


Dynamic modeling and reliability analysis of a wind turbine gearbox

Research students:

Esben Aldal and  Rudi Olesen, (MSc, graduated in june 2010)

Younes AIT DAOUI, Exchanging student from ECN, France

Luis Fernando Garcia (MSc, graduated in June 2012)



    Selected publications
  1. S. Bai, Z. Li, J. Angeles, Exact Path Synthesis of RCCC linkages for a Maximum of Nine Prescribed Positions, J. Mechanisms and Robotics , 2022, 14(2): 021011 [download pdf]
  2. S. Bai, A note on the univariate nonic derived from the coupler curve of four-bar linkages, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 118: 139-153[download Maple file]
  3. X. Wu, Z. Xie, J. A. Kepler, S. Bai, A parametric model of 3-PPR planar parallel manipulators for optimum shape design of platforms, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 118: 139-153[download pdf]
  4. S. Bai, 2017, Geometric analysis of coupler-link mobility and circuits for planar four-bar linkages, Mechanism and Machine Theory, 2017, 118:3–64 [download pdf ]
  5. K. Xu, L, Li,  S. Bai, Q. Yang,  X. Ding, 2017, Design and analysis of a metamorphic mechanism cell for multistage orderly deployable/retractable mechanism, Mech. and Mach. Theory, 111:85-98 [download pdf]
  6. L. Zhou, S. Bai, and Y. Li. Energy Optimal Trajectories in Human Arm Motion Aiming for Assistive Robots. Modeling, Identification and Control, 38(1):1119, 2017 [download pdf]
  7. S. Bai, D. Wang and H. Dong, 2016, A Unified Formulation for Dimensional Synthesis of Stephenson Linkages, Journal of Mechanism and Robotics, 2016, Vol. 8 #041009-1.[download pdf]
  8. S. Bai, and J. Angeles, 2015, Coupler-curve synthesis of four-bar linkages via a novel formulation, Mechanism and Machine Theory, Vol. 94, pp. 177-187 [download pdf]
  9. M. Lyu, W. Chen, X. Ding, J. Wang,  and S. Bai,  and H. Ren, 2016,  Design of a biologically inspired lower limb exoskeleton for human gait rehabilitation, Review of Scientific Instruments, 87, 104301 (2016), DOI:
  10. L. Zhou, Y. Li, S.  Bai, 2017, A Human-Centered Design Optimization Approach for Robotic Exoskeletons through Biomechanical Simulation, Robotics and Autonomous Systems,[download pdf]
  11. G. Wu, S. Bai, P. Hjørnet, 2016, Architecture Optimization of a Parallel Schönflies-motion Robot for Pick-and-place Applications in a Predefined Workspace, Mechanisms and Machine Theory, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2016.09.005, pp. 148-165 [download pdf]
  12. G. Wu, S. Bai, and J. Kepler,2015, Stiffness characterization of a 3-PPR planar parallel manipulator with actuation compliance, Proc. IMech, Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science 2015 229: 2291-2302 [pdf]
  13. L. Zhou, S. Bai, M. S. Andersen and J. Rasmussen, 2015, “Modeling and Design of a Spring-loaded, Cable-driven, Wearable Exoskeleton for the Upper Extremity”, Modeling, Identification and Control,  36(3), pp. 167-177 [download pdf]
  14. S. Bai and J. Angeles, 2015, Synthesis of RCCC linkages to visit four given poses, J. of Mechanisms and Robotics, 7(3), #031004,  doi:10.1115/1.4028637 [download pdf]
  15.  L. O'Sullivan, V. Power, G. Virk, N. Masud, U. Haider, S. Christensen, S. Bai, L. Cuypers, M. D’Havé, K.Vonck, 2015, End User Needs Elicitation for a Full-body Exoskeleton to Assist the Elderly, Procedia Manufacturing, Vol. 3, 2015, 1403-1409 [download pdf]
  16. L. Zhou and S. Bai, 2015, A new approach to design of a lightweight anthropomorphic arm for service applications, doi:10.1115/1.4028292 J. of Mechanisms and Robotics, 7(3), #031001[download pdf]
  17. X. Wu, W. Chen, S. Bai, et al. 2015, Image processing assisted locomotion observation of cockroach Blaptica Dubia, Trans. of the Institute of Measurement and Control doi:0142331214543299, Vol. 37(4) 522–535 [download pdf]
  18. G Wu, S Caro, S Bai, JA Kepler, 2014, Stiffness Analysis and Optimization of a Co-axial Spherical Parallel Manipulator,  Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol 62.1377-1386[download pdf]
  19. Wu, G., Bai, S. and Kepler, J. A., 2014,  Mobile Platform Center Shift in Spherical Parallel Manipulators with Flexible Limbs, Mechanism and Machine Theory. Vol.75, p. 12-26[download pdf]
  20. Chen, W.,  Jiang, J., Liu, J., Bai, S., Chen, W., A passive eddy current damper for vibration suppression of a force sensor. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 46, No. 7, 2013, p. 1-11[download pdf].
  21. Bai, S. Shape Modeling of Continuous-Curvature Continuum Robots, In Proc. of 6th International Workshop on Computational Kinematics 2013 (CK2013). 2013[download pdf]
  22. Bai S., Xing C.C. 2012. Shape Modeling of a Concentric-tube Continuum Robot. In Proc. 2012 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics (ROBIO 2012), Dec, 11-14, 2012, Guangzhou, China . pp. 116-121.
  23. Wu, G., Bai, S., Kepler, J.A., and Caro, S., 2012, Error Modeling and Experimental Validation of a Planar 3-PPR Parallel Manipulator With Joint Clearances, ASME J. Mechanisms and Robotics, 4(4), pp. 041008-1–041008-12 [download pdf].

  24. S. Bai and J. Angeles,  2012, A Robust Solution of the Spatial Burmester Problem, J. Mechanisms Robotics, 4, 031003 [download pdf]

  25. L. Zhou, S. Bai and M.R. Hansen, 2012, Integrated Dimensional and Drive-Train Design Optimization of a Light-Weight Anthropomorphic Arm.  Robotics and Autonomous Systems, 60(1), pages. 113-122 [download pdf]

  26. L. Zhou, S. Bai and M.R. Hansen, 2011. Drive train design and optimization of a 5-DOF light-weight robotic arm, Mechatronics, 21(3), Pages 560-569 [download pdf]

  27. S. Bai and J. Rasmussen, Modelling of Physical Human-Robot Interaction for Exoskeleton Designs, ECCOMAS Thematic Conference: Multibody Dynamics 2011, July 4-7, 2011, Brussels, Belgium, (download pdf).

  28. S. Bai and S. Caro, A Nonlinear Motor-Gear Model and its Application to Share-loading Analysis of Wind Turbine Yawing Mechanisms,  ECCOMAS Thematic Conference: Multibody Dynamics 2011, Brussels, Belgium.

  29. J. Angeles and S. Bai, A Robust Solution of the Spherical Burmester Problem, in proc. ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences (IDETC) ,  August 15-18, 2010, Montréal, #DETC-28189

  30. Binaud, N., Caro, S.,   Bai, S., Wenger, P. Comparison of 3-PPR Parallel Planar Manipulators Based on Their Sensitivity to Joint Clearances, In proc. IEEE/RSJ Inter.  Conf.  on Intelligent RObots and Systems (IROS), Taipei, October 18-22, 2010,  pages 2778-2783

  31. Bai, Shaoping, Optimum Design of Spherical Parallel Manipulators for a Prescribed Workspace. Mechanism and Machine Theory. 2010 ; 45(2) : 200-211 [download pdf]

  32. Bai, Shaoping, Hansen, Michael Rygaard, Angeles, Jorge. A robust forward-displacement analysis of spherical parallel robots. Mechanism and Machine Theory. 2009 ; 44(12), 2204-2216 [download pdf]

  33. Bai, Shaoping ; Caro, Stephane, Design and Analysis of a 3-PPR Planar Robot with U-shape Base. International Conference on Advanced Robotics (ICAR 2009), 2009

  34. S. Bai, M.R.Hansen, and T.O.Andersen  “Modelling of a special class of spherical parallel manipulators with Euler parameters”, Robotica, 2009, 27(2): 161-164 [download pdf]

  35. C. Chao, S. Bai, and J. Angeles, “The Synthesis of Dyads With One Prismatic Joint”, ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, 2008, 130(3), 034501:1-6 [download pdf]

  36. S. Bai and J. Angeles, “A unified input-output analysis of four-bar linkages”, Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 43, pp.240-251, 2008 [download pdf]

  37. S. Bai and M.R.Hansen,  “Modelling of a Spherical Robotic Wrist  with Euler Parameters”, Proc. The 12th World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science (IFToMM 2007), June 17-21, Besancon, France

  38. C.P. Teng, S.  Bai, and J. Angeles, 2007. “Shape synthesis in mechanical design”, Acta Polytechnica, 47(6), pp. 56-62 [download pdf]

  39. S. Hernandez, S. Bai and J. Angeles. "The Design of a Chain of Spherical Stephenson mechanisms for a Gearless Robotic Pitch-Roll Wrist", ASME Journal of Mechanical Design, Vol. 128, n2, pp. 422-429, 2006 [download pdf]

  40. J. Angeles, and S. Bai, “Some Special Cases of The Burmester Problem For Four and Five Poses”, Proc. 2005 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences(DETC’05), #MECH-84871 [download pdf]

  41. S. Bai and J. Angeles, “The Design of A Gearless Pitch-Roll Wrist”, Proc. of IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2005), pp. 3224—3229, 2005

  42. S. Bai and M. Y. Teo, “Kinematic Calibration and Pose Measurement of a Medical Parallel Manipulator by Optical Position Sensors", Journal of Robotic Systems, 20(4), pp. 201--209, 2003 [download pdf]

  43. S. Bai and K. H. Low, “Path Generation of Walking Machines in 3D Terrain”, Proc. IEEE Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2002), pp.2216-- 2221, Washington, 2002

  44. S. Bai, K.H. Low, “Terrain Evaluation and its Application to Path Planning for Walking Machines”, Advanced Robotics, 15(7), pp. 729--748, 2001.[download pdf]

  45. S. Bai and K.H. Low, “Body Trajectory Generation for Legged Locomotion Systems Using A Terrain Evaluation Approach”, Proc. IEEE International conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA 2001), pp.2279--2284, Seoul, Korea, 2001.

  46. S.P. Bai, K.H. Low, and T. Zielinska, “Quadruped Free Gait Generation Based on the Primary/Secondary gait”, Robotica, Vol. 17, pp.405--412, 1999 [download pdf]



Last update: 10/04/2017